This book analyses the financial and rural economic reform of China. Since China started the "revolution" of the rural economy in 1978 a series of reforms has been implemented in the area of rural finance focusing on institutional changes. Looking back on these "historical changes", we can find that there is still a long way to go. China's Central Government has put forward a new concept in the rural financial system. In this book, with cases from Fengyang County and Anhui Province, the birthplace of Chinese rural reform, the author tries to study how to set up a modern rural financial system under the framework of incentive compatible mechanism theory, which was advanced by Nobel prize winners L. Hurwicz, Myeson and Maskin. This book summarizes the reform of China's rural economics and the function of financial cooperation within this policy. Few scholars have studied this subject thoroughly. As rural financial cooperation becomes the hot spot of China's economic and finance reform, this book is both useful and unique. This book contains nine chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction in which the central issue has been put forward and a survey has been made on the literature of rural finance in China and abroad. It has outlined the framework and contents and introduced the research methodology and possible innovations. And it has also proposed the direction and major issues for further research. Chapter 2 illustrates the main theories on which this research is based, including peasant economy theory and the incentive compatibility theory. Chapter 3 analyses rural households' financial needs under the Household Contract Responsibility System and investigates rural households' economic behaviors, saving behaviors and lending behaviors, as well as their demand constraint. By analyzing the cause and goal of the exogenous financial institutional arrangements, and also the performance of its institutional supply, chapter 4 reveals the incentive incompatibility of rural exogenous financial institutions. Chapter 5 looks at the evolution of the rural endogenous financial institution and reveals the causes of its repression in the state's preference of financial institution from a historical perspective. Based on the incentive compatible mechanism, chapter 6 puts forward two models of rural household cooperative financial institution, namely, peasant credit cooperative and federation of rural credit cooperatives. Based on analyzing the credit basis of rural household cooperative financial institution (village culture) and its compatibility with the family contract system, chapter 7 shows the effectiveness of the institutional arrangements of rural household cooperative finance with the game analysis of rural households in relation with the exogenous and endogenous financial institutions and also from a comparative analysis of transaction costs and competitiveness. Chapter 8 tries to apply the model of institutions into practice. Through pilot experiment, it investigates the setting up and operation of peasant credit cooperatives and the Federation of Peasant Credit Cooperative in Fengyang County of Anhui Province, the birthplace of China's rural economic reform. With a comparative analysis of the performance of rural credit unions and village-township banks, it proves the effectiveness of the institutional arrangements of rural household cooperative finance. Chapter 9 is based on theoretical research and case studies, and draws a conclusion, and proposes corresponding policy-orientations.
Volume 3 of Peter Raina's magisterial history covers the 1960s and draws on newly released documents. In astonishing detail, it traces new plans drawn up during the Macmillan-Wilson era to reform the House of Lords. 'Mission impossible,' a civil servant declared. But when, to remain a Commons MP, Tony Benn insisted on disclaiming an inherited peerage, he started off a fresh willingness to tackle old problems. The Peerages Act 1963 allowed peers the option of disclaimer and, at last, gave equal rights in the Upper House to Scottish and women inheritors. A Labour government came in, and in 1967 gained the majority needed to embark on bold legislation. But it feared interference, so comprehensive plans were backed for changing the whole complexion of two-chamber politics. Led by Lord Shackleton and the intellectual Richard Crossman, schemes were devised and inter-party talks got under way - at first in a spirit of cooperation. But had the party elites listened to their fiery back-benchers? When a bill was introduced into parliament, the scenes were unforgettable...This volume tells not just the story, but reveals the intricate thinking of those who wanted to make a bicameral system work in the age of modern party politics.
A bright spring day was fading into evening. High overhead in the clear heavens small rosy clouds seemed hardly to move across the sky but to be sinking into its depths of blue. In a handsome house in one of the outlying streets of the government town of O-- (it was in the year 1842) two women were sitting at an open window; one was about fifty, the other an old lady of seventy.
With Forming a New Government, students will examine the choices that were made after the colonies decided they wanted to form a new country. This nonfiction reader explores some of the ideas and opinions of what the country should do with the rising tension among the American Colonies and Great Britain, and also looks at the Constitution of the United States, Connecticut Compromise, and Bill of Rights. Fuel a curiosity for learning with these nonfiction readers filled with primary source material. Artifacts from long ago offer students a snapshot of what life was like back then. Build literacy and subject content knowledge with this nonfiction reader that explores US history, geography, and other social studies topics. Forming a New Government provides access to every type of learner with appropriately leveled content and contains text features such as captions, bold print, glossary, and index to increase understanding and build academic vocabulary. Aligned to McREL, WIDA/TESOL, NCSS/C3 Framework and other state standards, this text readies students for college and career readiness.
"A Doll's House" is the story of Nora Helmer who has secretly borrowed a large sum of money to help her husband recover from a serious illness. Nora who has borrowed this money by forging her father's signature soon discovers the value of the relationship she has with her husband, Torvald, when he becomes the director of the bank that employs the man, Nils Krogstad, who has lent the money to Nora. When it is discovered that Nils has commited a forgery himself, Nils threatens to reveal Nora's secret to her husband if she does not convince Torvald to allow Nils to keep his position at the bank. "A Doll's House" is a gripping drama about a failing, loveless marriage.